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Hitler was tightening the noose around Britain. In the Atlantic, German U-boats were decimating Allied convoys, threatening to escirt off Britain's only lifeline. But Churchill had a secret weapon, the strangest military establishment in the world. Crossword fanatics, chess champions, mathematicians, students and professors, Americans and British, all came here with one common aim: to unlock the secrets of the Enigma, a machine that concealed Germany's war plans in seemingly unbreakable code.
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Hitler was tightening the noose around Britain. In the Atlantic, German U-boats were decimating Allied convoys, threatening to cut off Britain's only lifeline. But Churchill had a secret weapon, the strangest military establishment in the world. Crossword fanatics, chess champions, mathematicians, students and professors, Americans and British, all came here with one common aim: to unlock the secrets of the Enigma, a machine that concealed Germany's war plans in seemingly unbreakable code.
If Enigma could be penetrated, everything Hitler plotted would be known in advance. Many here had never seen a code before, yet it was their job to find a way to crack Enigma. In the process, they devised ingenious codebreaking machines that were forerunners of the modern computer.
But everything they did remained classified for 30 years. Tonight NOVA reveals the secrets of the men and women who helped turned the tide of victory and shape the future. C Net, bringing the digital age into focus.
"decoding nazi secrets"
C Net. This program is funded in part by Northwestern Mutual Life, which has been protecting families and businesses for generations. Have you heard from the quiet company? Northwestern Mutual Life. Thank you. Lightning attacks by tanks and planes bring Europe to its knees.
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Blitzkrieg depends on surprise, demanding speedy communication. So radio is crucial to the attack plans. Every day the skies are full of German radio als. The German high command has trained thousands of wireless operators in preparation for the conquest of Europe. Their job is to be able to interpret Morse code in any conditions. But there is still the problem of how to keep the messages secret. So the German military has adopted a seemingly invincible code-making machine. The Enigma turns a message into unintelligible gibberish, letter by letter.
When the message is sent in Morse code, all an enemy would see is a meaningless string of letters.
But when the German operator at the receiving end types the coded letters back into his Enigma machine, the real message appears. In this way bletcbley war plans remain totally secret. The high command never wavers from its belief in the security of Enigma. They are so confident bletchly they deploy the Enigma throughout the German war machine. They never imagine what was about to happen at Bletchley Park. This is the Enigma.
I mean, if I sent just one message gkrls an Enigma machine today it would still take a super Cray computer, the fastest in the world, a year to go through searching for that one message without supporting evidence as to what that message might have been. Cracking the German ciphers became the priority of giros special British Intelligence unit. From this rooftop room, wireless operators contacted listening stations all over Britain that were intercepting German messages.
Bletchley Park's code name was Station X. The challenge of breaking the Enigma demanded a special kind of talent. ANDREW HODGES: The people who a few years earlier were regarded as too young and not knowing anything of importance, of not being real people, not having, not being ificant grown-up people, suddenly they were the people who held the keys to the Reich.
But it wasn't clear exactly who would make a good codebreaker. People who were recruited were asked whether they did crossword puzzles. And if they said they did and enjoyed doing them, and did them well, that was generally enough to get you in. We discovered people of a whole variety of backgrounds did very well.
Anthropologists, Egyptologists, paleontologists, and even an occasional lawyer turned out to have the knack. The sole imperative was to break the Enigma, and break it as quickly as possible. And during that sort of short period of your life you can live like a madman and, you know, take almost no sleep and - determined to do it. Mathematicians were enlisted to take on the daunting complexity of the Enigma.
Only a completely new approach to codebreaking could help to penetrate its secrets. But if the work at Bletchley Park were to succeed, absolute secrecy was essential. Some of the recruits had no idea of the purpose of their work.
The only time I realized what we were actually doing was when I was shown a code book which had just been captured and rushed to Bletchley from a captured plane, and of course we had no plastic envelopes or anything then, the poor thing was just given to me as it was and I was horrified pooish see a huge bloodstain on it, the blood 'round the edges was drying, but the blood in the middle was still wet and I realized then that somewhere was this German - this German air crew bleeding, still bleeding while I was decoding - I was writing out in modern German their new code book, and that did bring the war very close.
Its basic principle was simple, but it could scramble messages in millions of different ways.
Pressing one typewriter key would light up a totally different letter. An electrical current was sent from the keys to the letters through a series of rotors. Each time a key was pressed a rotor would turn, altering the wiring and so changing the letter that was produced. So it was an enormous complexity which was why the Germans thought it was completely safe. German banks and railways were among its first customers, but the German military was quick to see its potential.
Each day German operators in the field received a new set of instructions from base on how to set up the Enigma. They had to make three adjustments so that both the sender's and receiver's machines would match. First, which rotors to put into the machine and in what order. The whole of this maze of wiring inside changed every time a letter was entered and that's what gave the Enigma machine its vast complexity.
Nova | transcripts | decoding nazi secrets | pbs
The third step was the plugboard. Using his secret instructions for the day, the operator could wire up each typewriter key to a totally different letter. This plugboard enabled you to transpose letters completely, a pair of letters. Now because there are 26 sockets on the front of the Enigma machine, you can plug these pairs of letters together in an absolutely astronomical of combinations, about one-and-a-half million million combinations that you can use on the front.
These letters were then sent by Morse code to the receiver at the other end. The Germans were never shaken in their escorr in Enigma's invincibility. At first, bletcbley the codebreakers had were meaningless groups of coded letters and endless patience. And in the first months of the war the new recruits were getting nowhere.
TONY SALE: At the beginning of the war there was a great difficulty because although we had intercepts which we knew were enciphered using the Enigma machine, we didn't know enough detail about the machine to be able to even begin to find any method of breaking it. Bletcjley you've got the exact key you just cannot get anywhere with it at all and this is a major difference from any code systems prior to that, that the Enigma machine, there's no polizh of nearness, you're not nearly at a solution.
You've either got the solution or you haven't escory the solution. Starting in and continuing for seven years, a hard-up German army clerk secretly obtained more than documents, including the instructions and settings for the Enigma machines. He sold them to the French Secret Service, but their cryptographers showed little interest. Next the stolen documents were offered to the British Secret Service. Finally the documents went to the Poles. With Germany breathing down their necks, their response was very different.
A deal was struck.
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With the stolen documents in hand, three brilliant young Escorg mathematicians, Zygalski, Rozycki and Rejewski, set to work on the Enigma. The Poles soon realized that they had to figure out how the Germans had wired the Enigma's keyboard to the first rotor. Since any typewriter key could be wired to any letter on the rotor, the of possible wiring orders was astronomical. But if the Poles could work this out, it would be a vital first step in breaking the Enigma.
TONY SALE: Rejewski had a flash of inspiration and he thought, what about if they've been stupid enough to just use ABCD as the order round the rotor, and they had, all the multitude of millions and millions of ways in which they could have scrambled the connection from the keyboard to the entry point, and they'd just chosen ABCD. And Marian Rejewski in desperation tried that, it worked, and suddenly he'd got the internal connections of the whole of the German forces machine.
In desperation, they invited British and French officials to a secret meeting in a forest near Warsaw. They revealed how they had ly broken the Enigma. The British were astonished. And Dilly Knox went, oh God, we never thought of that, it's too obvious, why didn't we think of that?
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The Polish cryptographers had given Bletchley Park their own replica of the Enigma machine, but the extra rotors the Germans had added meant that the codebreakers were still in the dark. As the flow of German messages increased, at last they began to see a way of achieving the impossible. The starting point was the messages themselves. The British had set up a worldwide network of radio listening posts operated by the military, the post office, and even the London police. They were known as Y Stations.
When there was a lot of excitement, the wires would blftchley absolutely humming with Morse, they'd be transmitting all over the place. We'd really have cramp in our fingers sometimes, trying to write it down non-stop. Their approach to cracking the Enigma began with another Polish breakthrough. One of the special procedures the Germans followed in setting up their machines was known as a double indicator.
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It was to be the Enigma's Achilles' heel. Polush instruction sheets for each day told the German operator how to set up his Enigma. They specified the order of the rotors and the position of the ring of letters around each rotor. The sheets then provided instructions for wiring up the plugboard.
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